High-speed system for ultrasonic inspection of rail condition

The problems at most railway tracks related to high-speed traffic and the increasing number of train pairs that result in the higher track occupancy rate, as well as cost analysis show the feasibility of using mobile systems as primary diagnostic tools. Over recent years TVEMA has made a major technical breakthrough in terms of development and manufacture of various components for NDT equipment installed on mobile diagnostic systems. This breakthrough has dramatically increased inspection reliability compared to manual diagnostic devices which ultimately made mobile diagnostic systems a number one choice.

In most foreign countries the development of diagnostics directly follows the path of upgrading NDT equipment components installed on mobile diagnostic systems. Manual diagnostic systems are essentially not used. TVEMA is actively engaged in refurbishment of third-party carriages. This is achieved through a flexible architecture of all equipment components developed by experienced engineers who created such various systems as:

• NDT inspection bogie;

• power supply equipment for the systems;

• pneumatic equipment;

• various types of tracking systems;

• skid probe systems;

• contact fluid supply system;

• ECHO-COMPLEX-2 multi-channel NDT analyzer;

• computer equipment and control software;

• ASTRA software for automatic analysis of NDT&TD data.

NDT inspection bogie is installed under the carriage body and is intended for mounting of underfloor NDT equipment.

Power supply and pneumatic equipment provides continuous operation of all subsystems. Tracking systems include both rolling friction systems, e.g. NDT bogie TA-1DI and contactless magnetic systems which operation is based on interaction of magnetic fields of the magnet and magnetized rail.

The latter can be mounted both on a dedicated NDT bogie and on a vehicle bogie. Both types of systems are widely used on the railways in Russia and abroad: in Ukraine, Turkmenistan, China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

The application of skid probe systems ensures stable operation even in the harshest climatic conditions. Due to simple design the mounting and dismounting of the acoustic unit and the entire system is very easy.

Short travel time of ultrasonic waves in the protector of the acoustic unit ensures the time aperture sufficient for registration of echo signals reflected directly from the discontinuities over the entire rail height thus significantly improving inspection reliability.

The design of acoustic unit and a wide range of transducers produced by TVEMA facilitate the implementation of any ultrasonic checking pattern conforming to the requirements to defect detection in accordance with normative regulations existing in various countries of the world.

The contact fluid supply system ensures a continuous water supply including heating for performing inspection even in extremely low temperatures.

ECHO-COMPLEX-2 multi-channel NDT analyzer equipped with many ultrasonic channels, its hardware capabilities and control software help to dramatically decrease the impact of unstable acoustic contact and the qualification of operating personnel on inspection results.

This brings to naught the only advantage of wheel-type probe systems – lesser fluctuations of acoustic contact. The software visualises inspection data in accordance with the requirements existing on any railways globally.

ASTRA software for automatic analysis of NDT&TD data provides automatic evaluation of NDT results in accordance with the requirements of national and international standards, and automatic generation of inspection reports.

The system is based on the modular design which ensures very simple mounting of equipment on a new mobile diagnostic system and the replacement of certain components during a carriage or railcar upgrade.

High-speed system for ultrasonic inspection of rail condition

The developing high-speed traffic and the increasing number of train-pairs result in the higher track occupancy rate which in turn requires the higher speed of ultrasonic inspection. However, it is commonly known that the speed increase leads to a less stable acoustic contact. Hence, the reliability of inspection is reduced.

It has been traditionally believed that the ultrasonic inspection is limited by the maximum allowable speed and this threshold cannot be exceeded. However, using the extensive experience in the design and manufacture of mobile NDT equipment, in 2013 TVEMA developed a unique high-speed system for ultrasonic inspection of rail condition.

Due to its original design the undercarriage NDT system equipment can be mounted both on a dedicated NDT bogie and on a standard vehicle bogie of the most types of carriages between wheel pairs.

The latter location of NDT equipment is innovative and means that NDT equipment can be used without a dedicated bogie. The system is designed for diagnostics of rails laid in a railway track with 1520 (1524) mm gauge and provides detection and logging of rail defects using ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method at speeds up to 140 km/h without reducing inspection reliability.

All components of the system were thoroughly upgraded or replaced with innovative solutions:

• contactless tracking system;

• probe;

• pneumatic;

• contact liquid supply system etc.

Contactless tracking system

The tracking of probe systems is performed contactlessly. The system provides precise positioning of probe systems relative to the rail head through interaction of magnetic fields of the permanent magnets of the system with the field of the magnetized rail. The design ensures the maximum value of restoring force when the tracking system deviates from the rail axis.

The advantages of this type of tracking systems are as follows:

• exclusion of mechanical contact of the tracking system with a rail, which could entail appearance of acoustic interference and reduce the life of the tracking system;

• minimizing the effect of the tracking system on the condition of rail head working surface (wear);

• prevention of acoustical contact loss due to ejection of snow or other contaminants (e.g. products of the rail lubricator) in front of the probe system;

• unhampered passing of switches of any design;

Skid probe system

For control of the rail head the system is equipped with transducers which emit ultrasonic waves under certain taper angles to the working and non-working rail head surfaces. This ensures control of the rail head with single and double reflected beams thus eliminating "dead" areas.

The main advantages of skid probe systems are as follows:

- inspection speeds up to 140 km/h;

- reliable operation in any climatic conditions;

- the design comprises parts made of available materials;

- simple mounting (dismounting) of the acoustic unit (replacement by the crew within 1 minute);

- simple mounting (dismounting) of the probe system (replacement by the crew within 2 minutes);

- use of water as a contact fluid (ecology) and its direct supply under the acoustic units through nipples, thereby minimizing its losses;

- low cost of entire system;

- implementation of various types of ultrasonic checking patterns;

- short travel time of ultrasonic waves in the protector of the acoustic unit ensures large inspection area.

Multi-channel NDT system

NDT system is intended for ultrasonic inspection. Advantageous features of the system include: increased number of ultrasonic channels, implementation of innovative hardware solutions and a broad range of functions of the control software thus providing a new inspection technology which dramatically reduces the impact of adverse factors (unstable acoustic contact, qualification of the decoder) on the inspection results. This solution has finally overcome the inspection speed limit previously unattainable for the ultrasonic inspection systems.

The dedicated software provides the following main functions:

- sensitivity threshold adjustment in the range from -36 to +12 dB;

- user-friendly automatic setup program;

- colour and graphical representation of signal amplitudes;

- simultaneous display of type A and B scans and video inspection results;

- comparison of several inspection runs, etc. The supply package includes ASTRA software for automatic analysis of NDT&TD data both in real time and after the inspection run.

Sokol system for track geometry assessment

Dozens of various branded high-speed geometry measurement systems are employed for rail track geometry assessment. Usually each of them is mounted on a special type of vehicle.

SOKOL system for monitoring and assessment of track geometry, manufactured by TVEMA, is distinguished by the fact that it can be integrated in any mobile diagnostic system irrespective of its manufacturer and dimensions, as there are carriages, railcars, etc. Such versatility, along with high precision measurements and affordable prices make it possible to use this system for rail track geometry monitoring on main lines and receiving-and-departure tracks. SOKOL provides the customers with a system, which meets, to the greatest possible extent, their objectives in maintaining the rated performance of any track section belonging to their area of responsibility.

The track geometry equipment constitutes a system of sensors mounted on three or four inspection bogies installed on the body or the frame of vehicle bogies. This design facilitates data logging at speeds up to 100 km/h. Simultaneous assessment of vertical and horizontal positions of both rails with respect to vehicle body as well as of kinematic travel parameters results in precise determination of the track geometry. The system also logs and checks for parameters and components of the track section under inspection: coordinates of kilometre posts, artificial facilities, crossings, switches, etc.

All acquired information is processed in real time, logged and documented for further analysis and for scheduling work in current maintenance and repair of the track.

The data acquired during travel is transmitted to the onboard computer system.This provides the visualization and logging of rail track geometry and its revealed deviations from maintenance standards. The computer system converts the displacements of the measuring instrumentation into electric signals, and based on their analysis, it reveals basic (rated) and additional (non-rated) geometry parameters of the rail track. Furthermore, additional information is acquired relating to speed and time of travel, operator's control actions, logging switches, etc.

Based on the basic and additional information processed, the computer system reveals deviations of rail track geometry from maintenance standards and determines required restrictions of the travel speed. Moreover, all deviations are analysed in quantity and quality and are referenced to particular coordinates.

Sokol 2 high-speed system for track geometry assessment

SOKOL-2 track geometry assessment system is mounted on the bogie frame of any vehicle and intended for high-speed measurement of rail track geometry and rail head profiles with a contactless method at speeds up to 250 km/h.

Precise measurement data acquisition is given due to the combination of two techniques, optical triangulation and inertial techniques.

Optical triangulation with an illuminating laser and receiving video cameras is applied for the contactless measurement of the position and geometry of both rails. Inertial techniques in form of an IMU (inertial measurement unit) provide real time calculation of the required characteristics of motion and orientation parameters in space.

Optionally, SOKOL-2 can host such additional equipment as video recorder and riding comfort monitoring systems for inspecting the effect of changes in rail profile and track gauge geometry on train travel parameters.

All acquired information is processed in real time, logged and documented for further analysis and for scheduling work in current maintenance and repair of the track.

SOKOL-2 software can reference the information on actual rail condition to the information retrieved from the database for the particular track section. It automatically compares the parameters obtained with the required parameters, and generates reports and recommendations for operating and managing divisions of railways.

The data acquired during travel is transmitted to the onboard computer system, which provides the visualization and logging of rail track geometry and its deviations from maintenance standards, as well as the required restrictions of travel speed. Moreover, all deviations are analysed in quantity and quality and are referenced to particular coordinates.

Svod system for visual detection of defects

SVOD system for visual detection of defects has been designed for automated inspection of permanent way components. SVOD system provides for early detection of the permanent way faults which are critical for the rail traffic safety such as joint damages, cracks in the rails and sleepers, etc.

SVOD system is installed on any vehicle and can perform continuous automated inspection of all permanent way components within the assembled rails and sleepers. SVOD captures and processes high-resolution images from video cameras which are located in the immediate vicinity of the objects being monitored. To provide for efficient equipment operation in all environmental conditions, the system can be equipped with liquid cooling and heating, dust removal, and mechanical external wiper systems.

All acquired video data is precisely referenced to geographic and track coordinates. The system software can compare the data obtained with the data from other diagnostic systems installed on the vehicle.

Svod-2 system for high-speed visual inspection

One of the system's basic components is a set of high-speed linear cameras providing image acquisition with resolution of 0.5 mm/pixel at the speeds up to 250 km/h. The novel dedicated illumination system ensures capture of a clear and well-contrasted image at any time of the day and in every kind of weather. A powerful data logging/analysis system provides image compression without loss of quality in real time, thereby increasing the independent total inspection length up to 10,000 km. The range of analytical software provides solutions for customer specified tasks in detection of infrastructure component defects.

The automatic analysis system facilitates real-time, post-processing detection of the following defects:

• rail end batters;

• rail tread shelling in the joint area;

• welded joint damages;

• side steps in rail joints;

• stagger of rail joints for both rail threads;

• abrasion from skidding;

• rail tread cracks;

• missing or damaged clamps;

• insufficient bolt tightening;

• sleeper misalignment and cracks;

• ballast spillage and filling;

• locating and measuring joint gaps.

The system provides for early detection of locations capable of causing deviation in track geometry due to faulty or missing permanent way components, hence improves traffic safety.

In addition to permanent way surface inspection, the TVEMA specialists recommend the installation of a fishplate inspection system, providing for automatic detection of such defects as cracks and lacking bolts. For railways with rail track control systems, the inspection of insulating joints and joint connectors is demanded.

The system is installed on a vehicle bogie and makes it possible to monitor all permanent way components within the assembled rails and sleepers.

Multi-channel georadar system (MGS)

The basis of railway track safety is, first and foremost, the reliability of its roadbed. Timely detection of deformations which may affect the traffic safety may be ensured by an efficient monitoring technique like georadar measurements.

The multi-channel georadar system (MGS) may be installed on any mobile or manual diagnostic device. MGS can perform high-speed roadbed and ballast diagnostics, which yield detailed information on their consistency.

At high speed, MGS determines the thickness and the lithologic structure of the ballast, ballast aggregate, ballast pollution and high humidity areas. Meanwhile, MGS detects in the ballast layer and the roadbed foreign objects such as large stones, cables, buried permanent way components, etc.

At the same time, the system detects the location of the roadbed soil upper level and its lithologic structure, and it locates in the roadbed weakened areas having reduced density and increased humidity. In addition, MGS locates areas hosting engineering facilities and detects areas with geotextile and styrene foam shields.

These measurements yield highly reliable continuous information on the medium being probed, a so-called georadar profile, or a radarogram. Its analysis assists the operator to make proper decisions on neutralising processes harmful for the roadbed and to schedule the respective repair actions.

MGS systems ensure not only timely detection of potentially hazardous deformations, but also provide unbiased assessment of the quality resulting from track overhaul.

Gabarit-m system for high-speed 3d scanning

GABARIT-M system for high-speed 3D scanning is intended for inspection of tunnel condition, analysis of the ballast prism parameters and checking of compliance with the clearance and inter-track profiles. The system installed on an inspection train or vehicle may comprise a high-speed and ultra-high-speed scanning systems.

The high-speed scanning system can perform diagnostics at speeds up to 140 km/h with sampling steps not exceeding 0.2 m. The system is based on a laser scanner and the phase-shift measurement principle ensuring the least possible measurement error in the entire operating range.

The ultra-high-speed system comprises 1 to 6 ultra-high-speed laser scanners providing minimum inspection sampling steps (0.05 m at 320 km/h) and preserving high image resolution. This system may be employed at high-speed railway sections where it is impossible to arrange traffic gaps for inspection, while the need for thorough and regular diagnostics dictates extraordinary requirements for inspection trains.

One of the basic advantages of both scanning systems is the unique dedicated software. The innovative filtering and compression system makes it possible to use only relevant information, while smart data analysis algorithms and the customer's information system interface modules provide for prompt implementation of the measurement systems in existing diagnostic technologies.

This system, together with modules for interfacing track section databases and modules for information import from other measurement systems ensure a high quality condition of infrastructure facilities.

Software modules generate the following analytical and reported data:

• 2- and 3D mapping of the inspected track section superimposed with videos showing the intrusion of objects in the preset clearance profile: areas and sizes;

• measured inter-track clearance profile;

• localising ballast prism maintenance;

• 2- and 3D imaging of tunnels with automatic detection of wall defects;

• contact wire position;

• out-of-gauge areas report;

• tunnel condition report;

• ballast prism condition report;

System for gatenary parameter measurement

The system is installed in an inspection vehicle whose roof is equipped with a measuring current collector and an observation tower with instrumentation located above the bogie axle. In some cases an industrial television set shall be added.

The observation tower design provides an all-round view for its inspection and measurement systems intended for video monitoring, thermal imaging and UV diagnostic of catenary components and assemblies. All this equipment is installed behind special windows protecting it from environment effects. The armoured glass ensures protection of operators in case of current collector damage, while auxiliary components provide for windshield heating and wiping.

Apart from determining the type (alternating/direct) and the value of the catenary voltage, the system measures and logs parameters of all catenary objects and automatically deduces a score rating of the catenary technical condition. The inspection of the contact wire involves the measurement of its suspension height, stagger and location of its contact point at the bevels.

Simultaneously the system equipment measures the tensile load exerted by the current collector on the contact wire; it logs impact on the collector in the range of 0 to 50 g, with ±0.5 g error, while pressing against the contact wire with a force in the range of 0 to 200 N, and an error not exceeding ±5 N. Further it logs disengagement from the wire. Positions of clamps and branches departing from the shoe's surface in the points ±600 mm from its axis are also detected.

Other facilities inspected by the system are catenary supports. In the course of inspection vehicle travel, the system detects supports and determines the distance from them to the track centreline and spans between them.

Dedicated system devices log excessive deviations of visually monitored catenary objects and perform video inspection of their condition.They also provide the recording of the operator's marks, including voice comments.They allow subsequent sampling or non-sampling retrieval according to preset criteria (supports, switches, operator's marks, etc.). Based on the acquired data, a score rating of the catenary technical condition on the track section being inspected is automatically deduced.

System for high-speed inspection of contact wire

The system is designed for operation at the electrified railways with 1520 mm gauge and can be employed both with an individual locomotive or included in a passenger train. The system uses proximity sensors to measure the parameters of the contact wire and the current collector.

The system measures the parameters of the contact wire above the rail heads (in the range 5400 ... 6900 mm with ±10 mm error), its stagger and rise (for number of wires 1 ... 8, in the range of ±700 mm with ±10 mm error). Other controlled parameters include the lowering of the contact wire on aerial cross-over and the required distance from the contact wire to the fixtures.

All logged signals are processed by the system computer. The measurement results, including detected deviations from the standards, are displayed in the real-time mode as the charts on the computer screen of the operator's workstation and archived on the hard drive or external data storage. The results of the thermal imaging and UV camera data are stored in the separate files. All measurement data are referenced to the readings of the speed and travel sensor and to the registration points of the contact wire.

The charts with the inspection results can be printed out. During the inspection process, the deviation report is printed out. The report contains the score rating which reflects the condition of the section inspected.

The instrument room operator uses the software to control the system, while the observation tower operator visually controls the condition of the catenary and manually logs the identified deviations to a PC via a dedicated input panel. The connection points for this input panel are also located in the operator's instrument room. This provides for the input of data for the deviations identified through the right or left inspection windows. The operator can make visual marks, similar to the input panel, via the software.

The system can also generate various reports in Excel spreadsheet format including various records for dangerous places and deviations for the specified section or for the entire run. The system is operated via two operators' workstations. One workstation is located in the instrument room of the laboratory vehicle; the other workstation is located in the observation tower room.

Main advantages of the system:

1. Absence of moving parts inside the measurement system.
All system components are working in static position, thereby improving the precision and eliminating the need for frequent calibrations of the system.

2. Absence of sunlight influence.
Due to a very narrow spectrum of the laser emitter all cameras of the system are equipped with optical interferometric filters which filter the sunlight and other ambient light thus making it possible to perform measurements even in the daylight.

3. Sampling rate.
Thanks to the high-speed cameras, the system can make up to 5000 measurements per second. A very high sampling rate makes it possible to detect wear caused, for instance, by electric breakdown.

4. Absence of pars which are located in the immediate vicinity of the high-voltage components.
This increases the safety of the system.

5. Long life.
The life of the laser systems is much longer compared to traditional lamp-based solutions.

IVK-ALS system for high-speed measurement of track circuit parameters

The acronym of this system, unprecedented in Russia, stands for "Measuring and Computer System - Automatic Cab Signalling".

The system is designed for a high-speed inspection of the track circuits of railway automation and telemetry devices. The system checks the operation of the alarm and control systems of the railway vehicles. Furthermore, it evaluates the value of the residual rail magnetic induction on the way of the train.

The system measures the operational parameters of the automatic cab signalling systems (including continuous and integrated continuous types) and automatic train stop systems (including centralized and modified centralized types). Simultaneously, the audio frequency track circuits are checked. Here, the system equipment provides for the measurement, display, and real-time logging of oscillograms, charts, amplitude, frequency, and time-response characteristics of the eclectic signals in the track circuits.

For each type of the data, there is a separate monitoring and measuring channel. All data is automatically logged and analysed by the dedicated software. The acquired data can be sent to a fixed computer workstation for further analysis and transmission to the common information area of ОАО RZD.

Another advantage of the system is that it can not only generate, but also edit, if required, the standards database, accumulate and analyse the measurement results, store and print out charts, oscillograms and reporting documentation.

IVK ALS system is installed on an inspection vehicle. It can be employed both with an individual locomotive or included in a passenger train on all railways.

KTSM system for monitoring the condition of floor-mounted equipment

Overheating of box bearings may result in wheel set journal breakage, rolling stock derailment or carriages and/or cargo catching fire. To prevent such emergencies, special floor-mounted hot-box detection devices are employed in railway constructions. The readings of these devices must be continuously monitored. This may be performed, in particular, with a dedicated monitoring system developed by the TVEMA specialists.

KTSM (the Russian acronym for 'Upgraded Hardware System') is an example of the Company know-how, which is unprecedented in Russia. It is intended for automated on-the-fly monitoring of device condition. To this end, hot boxes of a laboratory vehicle are simulated, and the acquired results are processed and analysed by the computer system. The computer system comprises instrumental temperature channels for the working surface of the hot-box simulator and for ambient air at both sides of the laboratory vehicle. A simulator power supply control channel and train radio communication logging channel are also provided.

KTSM-01, KTSM-02 control equipment measures, displays and performs real-time logging of the data and the temperature information for each channel, as well as recording of KTSM voice informer messages via the train radio communication channel. The entire user interface is arranged within a single operator's workstation.

The software makes it possible to display the information on travel route, KTSM stations at the track section, simulator condition, as well as to save and process the inspection results with referencing to coordinates, and to print out reports.

The system prints report documentation. KTSM system provides logging and listening to the train radio communication for the purpose of comparing the recorded information with that received from the station operator or from the voice informer on a laboratory vehicle passing KTSM station. There is an option of building and, if required, editing KTSM station database.

The system is installed on an inspection vehicle. It can be employed both with an individual locomotive or included in a passenger train on all railways.

Radius system for monitoring the condition of analogue and digital communication networks

The main advantages of the system include the highest precision of measurements combined with exceptionally fast analysis capabilities. RADIUS automatically measures and logs parameters of the train radio communication facilities and communication networks (TETRA, GSM, GSM-R, Wi-Fi, and Wi-Max), referencing them to the track coordinates and analysing their conformance to standards, taking into account the types of the radio channel feeding and the type of traction used at a particular track section.

The system measures the output signal level for the locomotive antennas, as well as the carrier frequency of the call signals form various subscribers (DSP, NDC, PUPR, etc.) and their modulation frequency and frequency deviation. RADIUS also measures the radio signal bandwidth and the noise level at the track section where the laboratory vehicle is located.

While performing the diagnostics of the Wi-Fi networks, the system automatically detects the network devices and access points and monitors the bit and block error rate for the communication channels. The system also identifies the coverage area, checks the network security and detects sources of disturbance that may interfere with the correct operation of the networks.

The monitoring of GSM, GSM-R and TETRA network parameters involves the identification of the actual service area, poor-reception areas, and the boundaries of the coverage areas. The system simultaneously identifies the areas with the low signal level and low communication quality. Meanwhile, the signal levels are displayed on a map, the poor-reception areas and sources of radio disturbance are detected, and the voice and data transmission quality is evaluated.

In the continuous automatic mode, the system collects the information about the condition of more than 300 parameters of GSM, GSM-R, and TETRA networks.

Based on the acquired data, the unique software of RADIUS system automatically generates reports, including tables of measurement results and signal level chart for the route. The software filters enable the operator to prepare a report both for the entire route and separate stations with the selection of all or specified measurements.

RADIUS system is designed for installation on an inspection vehicle which can be employed both with an individual locomotive or included in a passenger train on all railways.

Sokrat system for rail quality control

This system, unprecedented in Russia and CIS countries, is designed to perform the diagnostics and full inspection of new and used rails at steel mills and rail welding plants.

In the industrial environment, SOKRAT performs instrumental inspection and evaluation of the rail condition, automatically documents findings in electronic and printed form.

The system comprises several subsystems. The NDT subsystem checks the condition of the rail head, rail web and rail base. The geometry inspection subsystem measures the rail height, horizontal wear, scaled wear and corrugation, the camber and skewness of the rail profile, as well as the twisting and the length of the rails and rail bars. SOKRAT also comprises the video inspection system.

The rail profile is inspected by two 2D-sensors. The profile measured by the sensors is compared to the rated values. The result is used to calculate the skewness of the profile, as well as the horizontal, vertical, and scaled wear. The rail corrugation and camber in the vertical plane are measured by four triangulation laser sensors located above the rail head.

The rail camber in the horizontal plane is measured by three triangulation laser sensors located alongside the rail. The rail twisting is measured by four triangulation laser sensors located in pairs under the rail base.

All information is collected via a network at the common server. This information is used to generate the passport for the rail or the rail bar. The NDT data is saved in passport as individual files, while the geometry inspection results are stored as graphic charts with the indication of the maximum and average deviations form the rated values.

Lubrication system

In 2009-2010, TVEMA together with the Department of Technical Policy of ОАО RZD performed the analysis of the technical solutions of the lubrication vehicles operated at the railways and selected the most optimal configuration of the vehicle and rail lubrication equipment layout.

As a result, the Company developed a lubrication vehicle which is fitted out with a state-of-the-art, high-tech equipment which yields an unprecedented performance thanks to intelligent software.

The rail lubrication assembly features the hydraulic lubricant supply system - primary and air-operated lubricant supply system - backup. The assembly comprises:

• lubricant filling system;

• two supply tanks for the lubricant;

• compressor with receiver;

• system for automated supply of the lubricant to the nozzle with GPS/GLONASS or gyroscope (as backup) control capability;

• feed units to supply the lubricant onto the rails, with the heating system for the external piping and the nozzles.

The capacity of the lubricant tanks is 1200 litres. Two loading modules at both sides of the vehicle provide the loading of the lubricant drums with the total capacity 2 m3. The filing system includes filters which prevent the contamination of the lubricant. Each lubricant tank is fitted out with the equipment for determining the quantity and mixing the lubricant.

The haul distance for a single filling of lubricant is 5000 km. The specific consumption of the lubricant is 0.15 ... 0.35 litres per 1 km of the curved rail, irrespective of the vehicle speed.

The position of the nozzle axis relative to the rail tread is 11±2 mm.

The diameter of the interchangeable nozzle orifice for application of the lubricant is less than 0.9 mm.

The deviation from the set start (end) point for supply of the lubricant is -10±1 m.